Types of qualitative coding methods
The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers by Johnny SaldanaThe Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers is unique in providing, in one volume, an in-depth guide to each of the multiple approaches available for coding qualitative data. In total, 29 different approaches to coding are covered, ranging in complexity from beginner to advanced level and covering the full range of types of qualitative data from interview transcripts to field notes. For each approach profiled, Johnny Saldana discusses the methods origins in the professional literature, a description of the method, recommendations for practical applications, and a clearly illustrated example.Also included in the book is an introduction to how codes and coding initiate qualitative data analysis, their applications with qualitative data analysis software, the writing of supplemental analytic memos, and recommendations for how to best use the manual for particular studies.
Coding (social sciences)
In the social sciences , coding is an analytical process in which data, in both quantitative form such as questionnaires results or qualitative form such as interview transcripts are categorized to facilitate analysis. One purpose of coding is to transform the data into a form suitable for computer-aided analysis. This categorization of information is an important step, for example, in preparing data for computer processing with statistical software. Some studies will employ multiple coders working independently on the same data. This minimizes the chance of errors from coding and is believed to increase the reliability of data. One code should apply to only one category and categories should be comprehensive. There should be clear guidelines for coders individuals who do the coding so that code is consistent.
Similar to the way you can group usability testing methods , there are also a number of ways to segment qualitative methods. A popular and helpful categorization separate qualitative methods into five groups: ethnography, narrative, phenomenological, grounded theory, and case study. While the five methods generally use similar data collection techniques observation, interviews, and reviewing text , the purpose of the study differentiates them—something similar with different types of usability tests. And like classifying different usability studies, the differences between the methods can be a bit blurry. Here are the five qualitative methods in more detail. Ethnographic research is probably the most familiar and applicable type of qualitative method to UX professionals.
Coding is a way of indexing or categorizing the text in order to establish a framework of thematic ideas about it Gibbs Coding is a process of identifying a passage in the text or other data items photograph, image , searching and identifying concepts and finding relations between them. Therefore, coding is not just labeling; it is linking of data to the research idea and back to other data The codes which are applied enable you to organise data so you can examine and analyse them in a structured way, e. A basic division between coding approaches is concept-driven coding versus data-driven coding or open coding. Investigators can either use a predetermined coding scheme or review the initial responses or observations to construct a coding scheme based on major categories that emerge. Both methods require initial and thorough readings of your data and writing down which patterns or themes you notice.
This review is in the form of an abbreviated set of directions for initial coding and analysis. There are many ways to accomplish both actions. This approach assumes you are using interview data. For a more detailed treatment of these and related analysis concepts, click here. At this first level of coding, you are looking for distinct concepts and categories in the data, which will form the basic units of your analysis. In other words, you are breaking down the data into first level concepts, or master headings, and second-level categories, or subheadings. Researchers often use highlights to distinguish concepts and categories.