What are some questions scientists still have about endosymbiosis
The Vital Question: Energy, Evolution, and the Origins of Complex Life by Nick LaneThe Earth teems with life: in its oceans, forests, skies and cities. Yet there’s a black hole at the heart of biology. We do not know why complex life is the way it is, or, for that matter, how life first began. In The Vital Question, award-winning author and biochemist Nick Lane radically reframes evolutionary history, putting forward a solution to conundrums that have puzzled generations of scientists.
For two and a half billion years, from the very origins of life, single-celled organisms such as bacteria evolved without changing their basic form. Then, on just one occasion in four billion years, they made the jump to complexity. All complex life, from mushrooms to man, shares puzzling features, such as sex, which are unknown in bacteria. How and why did this radical transformation happen?
The answer, Lane argues, lies in energy: all life on Earth lives off a voltage with the strength of a lightning bolt. Building on the pillars of evolutionary theory, Lane’s hypothesis draws on cutting-edge research into the link between energy and cell biology, in order to deliver a compelling account of evolution from the very origins of life to the emergence of multicellular organisms, while offering deep insights into our own lives and deaths.
Both rigorous and enchanting, The Vital Question provides a solution to life’s vital question: why are we as we are, and indeed, why are we here at all?
Open questions on the origin of eukaryotes
Despite recent progress, the origin of the eukaryotic cell remains enigmatic. It is now known that the last eukaryotic common ancestor was complex and that endosymbiosis played a crucial role in eukaryogenesis at least via the acquisition of the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. However, the nature of the mitochondrial host is controversial, although the recent discovery of an archaeal lineage phylogenetically close to eukaryotes reinforces models proposing archaea-derived hosts. We argue that, in addition to improved phylogenomic analyses with more comprehensive taxon sampling to pinpoint the closest prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes, determining plausible mechanisms and selective forces at the origin of key eukaryotic features, such as the nucleus or the bacterial-like eukaryotic membrane system, is essential to constrain existing models. The origin of the eukaryotic cell was a major evolutionary event that led to a wide diversification of lineages displaying very different morphologies, several of which independently evolved towards multicellularity [ 1 ]. Compared to the average prokaryotic cell, the average early eukaryotic cell represented a considerable increase in structural complexity, typified by the presence of an endomembrane system delimiting a hallmark eukaryotic feature, the nucleus, and membrane-bound organelles, notably mitochondria. In the past decades progress in cell and molecular biology, microbial diversity studies and, most of all, comparative genomics and molecular phylogeny, have helped to better constrain the nature of that transition.
Some scientist have still now is search for resourse and some are left Some questions that scientist have are for figuring out how to cure diseses. Others are to help make our lives easier such as making robot to read your mind! No, not all of them, but certainly some of them. Some scientist believe that the megalondan shark still swims in the depths of the ocean. People started posting questions like these. There are still many interesting questions out their.
Endosymbiosis explains the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, but However, scientists are still actively debating whether or not these structures Why have endosymbiosis and symbiosis been so important to evolution? Why cooperate at all? The answer to these questions points us to one of the basic processes of.
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A long-lasting query
Endosymbiosis explains the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, but could it also explain other features of the eukaryotic cell? However, scientists are still actively debating whether or not these structures evolved through endosymbiosis. The jury is out while more evidence is gathered. In her theory of endosymbiosis, Lynn Margulis emphasizes that during the history of life, symbiosis has played a role not just once or twice, but over and over again. Instead of the traditional tree of life branching out from a few common ancestors to many descendent species, Margulis proposes that branches have separated, and then come together again many times as individuals of different species set up symbiotic relationships and formed new organisms.